Clinical Studies

Reduces Swelling & Edema

1. Deal DN, Tipton J, Rosencrance E, Curl WW, Smith TL. Ice reduces edema. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-(9):1573-1578.2.

2. Klaus-Dieter Schaser,*† MD, PhD, Alexander C. Disch,† MD, John F. Stover,‡ MD, PhD, Annette Lauffer,† Herman J. Bail,† MD, PhD, and Thomas Mittlmeier,§ MD, PhD Attenuates Microcirculatory Impairment, Regional Inflammation, and Muscle Necrosis After Closed Soft Tissue Injury in Rats From the Center of Muskuloskeletal Surgery, Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Zuerich, and the Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rostock, Germany

3. Schaser K-D, Stover JF, Melcher I et al. Local cooling restores microcirculatory hemodynamics after closed soft-tissue trauma in rats. J Trauma. 2006;61(3):642-649.

Pain Reduction, Speeds Recovery, Shortens Hospital Length of Stay

4. Javad Parvizi, MD, FRCS, Adam G. Miller, MD, and Kishor Gandhi, MD Multimodal Pain Management After Total Joint Arthroplasty, Investigation performed at Rothman Institute of Orthopedics, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Copyright THE JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY

Pain Reduction

5. R. Meeusen, P. Lievens, The Use of Cryotherapy in Sports Injuries, Sports Medicine November 1986, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp 398-414 Cold Reduces Bleeding

6. Ho, S.S.W., M.N. Coel, R. Kagawa, and A.B. Richardson. The effects of ice on blood flow and bone metabolism in knees. Am. J. Sports Med. 22:537-540, 1994. Speeds Recovery & Length of Stay

7. Hocutt JE Jr, Cryotherapy, American Family Physician [1981, 23(3):141-144]

Compression, ROM

8. Prawit Janwantanakul Cold pack/skin interface temperature during ice treatment with various levels of compression, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand DOI: Improved Range of Motion

9. Craig R. Denegar, PhD, ATC David H. Perrin, PhD, ATC Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Cold, and a Combination Treatment on Pain, Decreased Range of Motion, and Strength Loss Associated with Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Volume 27 . Number 3 . 1992 * Journal of Athletic Training Affects Bacterial Growth

10. Howard J. Schaubel, M.D. Orthopedic Division, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, N.C. THE LOCAL USE OF ICE AFTER ORTHOPEDIC PROCEDURES* The American Journal of Surgery, 1946 Danger of NSAIDs

11. US Department of Health and Human Services; The Benefits and Risks of Pain Relievers: Q & A on NSAIDs with Sharon Hertz, M.D., FDA Consumer Update

12. FDA strengthens warning that NSAIDs increase heart attack and stroke risk, Gregory Curfman, MD, Editor in Chief, Harvard Health Publications Posted Harvard Health Blog July 13, 2015 RICE under Criticism

13. Ross Hauser, MD, Rice Therapy: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation under criticism

14.  T. Zeigler, EdD, ATC, Using Thermotherapy to Treat Sports Injuries. SportsMD